Intelligent Walking Stick for Physically Impaired Persons

             Visually impaired people are the people who finds it difficult to recognize the smallest detail with healthy eyes. Those who have the visual acuteness of 6/60 or the horizontal range of the visual field with both eyes open have less than or equal to 20 degrees. These people are regarded as blind. A survey by WHO (World Health Organization) carried out in 2011 estimates that in the world, about 1% of the human population is visually   impaired (about 70 million people) and amongst them, about 10% are fully blind (about 7 million people) and 90% (about 63 million people) with low vision according to .The main problem with blind people is how to navigate their way to wherever they want to go. Such people need assistance from others with good eyesight.

Project Description


             This paper presents the smart walking stick based on ultrasonic sensors and Arduino for visually impaired people. There are approximately 37 million people across the globe who are blind according to the World Health Organization. People with visual disabilities are often dependent on external assistance which can be provided by humans, trained dogs, or special electronic devices as support systems for decision making. Thus, we were motivated to develop a smart white cane to overcome these limitations. We accomplished this goal by adding ultrasonic sensors at specific positions to the cane that provided information about the environment to the user by activating the buzzer sound. We proposed low cost and light weight system designed with microcontroller that processes signal and alerts the visually impaired person over any obstacle, water or dark areas through beeping sounds. The system consists of obstacle and moisture detection sensors for receiving, processing and sending signals to the alarm system which finally alerts the user for prompt action. The system was designed, programmed using C language and tested for accuracy and checked by the visually impaired person. Our device can detect obstacles within the distance of about 2m from the user.


  • Arduino UNO
  • Ultrasonic Sensor
  • Fell Down Sensor
  • Node MCU
  • Relay Driver
  • Buzzer
  • Power Supply
  • LCD Display


  • Arduino IDE
  • Embedded C


  • This stick is eligible for both inside and outside of the house.
  • This project is very cost effective. Thus, every people can afford it.
  • This project can also controlled via Android application
  • Obstacle detection is very effective
  • As we use the mother tongue, so every user can identify the messages.
  • We can easily track the blind person.

Project Block Diagram

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